Compare and Contrast the Qualitative and Quantitative Research Strategies
Pierre Chandon, Vicki G. Morwitz, & Werner M. Reinartz
Do Intentions Really Predict Habit? Self-Generated Quality Effects in Survey Research of the marriage between order intentions and purchase behavior have ignored the possibility that the very action of way of measuring may inflate the connection between motives and habit, a happening called " self-generated validity. вЂќ With this research, the authors develop a latent model of the reactive effects of dimension that is suitable to intentions, attitude, or perhaps satisfaction info, and they show that this style can be believed with a two-stage procedure. In the first level, the writers use data from selected consumers to predict the presurvey latent purchase motives of equally surveyed and nonsurveyed buyers. In the second stage, that they compare the strength of the connection between the presurvey latent intentions and the postsurvey behavior throughout both teams. The writers find significant and reliable self-generated quality effects around three different large-scale discipline studies. Typically, the correlation between valuable intentions and purchase behavior is 58% greater among surveyed consumers than it really is among identical nonsurveyed consumers. One study also shows that the reactive effect of the dimension of purchase intentions can be entirely mediated by self-generated validity but not by social norms, purpose modification, or other measurement effects which can be independent of presurvey latent intentions.
onsumers' self-reported motives have been utilized widely in academic and commercial exploration because they represent easy-to-collect proxies of behavior. For example , most educational studies of satisfaction make use of consumers' motives to repurchase as the criterion changing (for an exception, see Bolton 1998), and the most companies depend on consumers' order intentions to forecast their adoption of new products or maybe the repeat purchase of existing types (Jamieson and Bass 1989). However , it truly is well known that consumers' self-reported purchase motives do not flawlessly predict their future order behavior, nor do these types of differences cancel each other away when intentions and behavior are aggregated across customers. In a metaanalysis of 87 behaviors, Sheppard, Hartwick, and Warshaw (1988) find a frequency-weighted average relationship between intentions and habit of. 53, with wide varia-
Pierre Chandon is Helper Professor of Marketing, INSEAD, and currently he is Visiting Helper Professor of Marketing, Kellogg School of Supervision, Northwestern University (e-mail: pierre. [email protected] edu). Vicki G. Morwitz is definitely Associate Mentor of Marketing and Robert Stansky Faculty Analysis Fellow, Stern School of Business, New York University (e-mail: [email protected] nyu. edu). Werner J. Reinartz is Connect Professor of promoting, INSEAD (e-mail: werner. [email protected] edu). The authors acknowledge the beneficial input from the anonymous JM reviewers, David Lynch, Innocents Laurent, and Albert Bemmaor, as well as people who participated if the authors offered this analysis at INSEAD; at the Affiliation for Consumer Research Conference, Portland; in the Marketing Science Conference, College or university Park, Md.; and at the ESSEC-HEC-INSEAD conference. In addition , the authors give thanks to the French online grocer Prodigy Services Business and Allison Fisher for providing info and INSEAD for its financial assistance.
tions across actions of intentions and types of habit (for an overview, see Morwitz 2001). To enhance the ability to prediction behavior coming from intentions, researchers have examined alternative weighing machines (Reichheld the year 2003; Wansink and Ray 2000) and have created models that account for biases in the way of measuring and reporting of motives, the heterogeneity across clients, changes in authentic intentions between time of the survey plus the time of the behaviour, and the stochastic and nonlinear nature from the relationship between intentions and behavior (Bemmaor 1995; Hsiao, Sun, and...
References: Armstrong, J. Scott and Wendy Collopy (1992), " Error Measures to get Generalizing About Forecasting Strategies: Empirical Evaluations, вЂќ Intercontinental Journal of Forecasting, 8 (1), 69вЂ“80. Baumgartner, Hans and Jan-Benedict E. Meters. Steenkamp (1992), " Response Styles in Marketing Study: A Cross-National Investigation, вЂќ Journal of promoting Research, 37 (May), 143вЂ“56. Bemmaor, Albert C. (1995), " Guessing Behavior via Intentionto-Buy Steps: The Parametric Case, вЂќ Journal of Marketing Research, 32 (May), 176вЂ“91. Bollen, Kenneth A. (1996), " An alternate Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) Estimator for Latent Adjustable Equations, вЂќ Psychometrika, 61 (1), 109вЂ“121. вЂ”вЂ”вЂ” and Pamela Paxton (1998), " Two-Stage Least Squares Appraisal of Interaction Effects, вЂќ in Discussion and Nonlinear Effects in Structural Formula Modeling, Randall E. Schumacker and George A. Marcoulides, eds. London, uk: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bolton, Ruth In. (1998), " A Dynamic Model of the Duration of the Customer's Marriage with a Ongoing Service Provider: The Role of Satisfaction, вЂќ Marketing Scientific research, 17 (1), 45вЂ“65. Chandon, Pierre, Vicki G. Morwitz, and Werner J. Reinartz (2004), " The Short- and Long term Effects of Testing Intent to Repurchase, вЂќ Record of Buyer Research, thirty-one (3), 566вЂ“72. Dholakia, Paul M. and Vicki G. Morwitz (2002a), " Just how Surveys Effect Customers, вЂќ Harvard Organization Review, 70 (5), 18вЂ“19. вЂ”вЂ”вЂ” and вЂ”вЂ”вЂ” (2002b), " The Scope and Persistence of MereMeasurement Results: Evidence coming from a Field Research of Customer Satisfaction Measurement, вЂќ Journal of Consumer Analysis, 29 (2), 159вЂ“67. Feldman, Jack Meters. and Ruben G. Lynch Jr. (1988), " Self-Generated Validity and also other Effects of Dimension on Idea, Attitude, Purpose, and Tendencies, вЂќ Diary of Utilized Psychology, 73 (3), 421вЂ“35. Fishbein, Matn and Icek Ajzen (1975), Beliefs, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An intro to Theory and Research. Reading, MOTHER: Addison-Wesley. Fitzsimons, Gavan L. and Vicki G. Morwitz (1996), " The Effect of Measuring Objective on Brand-Level Purchase Tendencies, вЂќ Diary of Consumer Research, twenty-three (1), 1вЂ“11. Greenleaf, Eric A. (1992), " Bettering Rating Scale Measures by Detecting and Correcting Tendency Components in Some Response Designs, вЂќ Journal of Marketing Analysis, 29 (May), 176вЂ“88. Hsiao, Cheng, Bao Hong Sunshine, and Vicki G. Morwitz (2002), " The Part of Stated Intentions in New Product Obtain Forecasting, вЂќ in Developments in Econometrics, Vol. of sixteen, Thomas W. Fomby and R. Carter Hill, eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science, 11вЂ“28. Irwin, Julie R. (1999), " Introduction to the Particular Issue about Ethical Trade-Offs in Client Decision Making, вЂќ Journal of Consumer Psychology, 8 (3), 211вЂ“13. вЂ”вЂ”вЂ” and Gary H. McClelland (2001), " Misleading Heuristics and Achieved Multiple Regression Models, вЂќ Journal of promoting Research, 32 (February), 100вЂ“109. Jamieson, Hermosa F. and Frank M. Bass (1989), " Modifying Stated Intention Measures to Predict Trial Purchase of New Products: A Comparison of Models and Methods, вЂќ Journal of Marketing Research, 26 (August), 336вЂ“45. Juster, F. Thomas (1966), " Buyer Buying Intentions and Purchase Likelihood: An Try things out in Study Design, вЂќ Journal from the American Record Association, sixty one (September), 658вЂ“96. Kalwani, Manohar U. and Alvin T. Silk (1982), " Within the Reliability and Predictive Validity of Obtain Intention Procedures, вЂќ Advertising Science, 1 (3), 243вЂ“86. Kamakura, Wagner A., Vikas Mittal, Fernando De Rosa, and Jose Afonso Mazzon (2002), " Assessing the Service-Profit Chain, вЂќ Promoting Science, twenty one (3), 294вЂ“317.
Intentions and Predicting Behavior / 13
Manski, Charles F. (1990), " The application of Intentions Data to Forecast Behavior: A Best-Case Evaluation, вЂќ Diary of the American Statistical Affiliation, 85 (412), 934вЂ“40. Mittal, Vikas and Wagner A. Kamakura (2001), " Satisfaction, Repurchase Objective, and Repurchase Behavior: Looking into the Moderating Effect of Buyer Characteristics, вЂќ Journal of promoting Research, 35 (February), 131вЂ“42. Morrison, Jesse G. (1979), " Purchase Intentions and buying Behavior, вЂќ Journal of Marketing, 43 (April), 65вЂ“74. Morwitz, Vicki G. (2001), " Methods for Foretelling of from Intentions Data, вЂќ in Rules of Foretelling of: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners, J. Scott Armstrong, male impotence. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Educational Publishers, 34вЂ“56. вЂ”вЂ”вЂ” and Gavan M. Fitzsimons (2004), " The Mere Dimension Effect: Why Does Measuring Motives Change Real Behavior? вЂќ Journal of Consumer Mindset, 14 (1вЂ“2), 64вЂ“74. вЂ”вЂ”вЂ”, Eric Meeks, and David Schmittlein (1993), " Really does Measuring Intent Change Tendencies? вЂќ Log of Client Research, 20 (1), 46вЂ“61. Reichheld, Frederick F. (2003), " One Number You have to Grow, вЂќ Harvard Organization Review, 81 (12), 46вЂ“57. Reinartz, Werner J. and V. Kumar (2000), " On the Profitability of Long lastting Customers in a non-contractual Environment: An Scientific Investigation and Implications for Marketing, вЂќ Journal of Marketing, 64 (October), 17вЂ“35. Rossi, Peter Elizabeth., Zvi Gilula, and Greg M. Allenby (2001), " Overcoming Scale Usage Heterogeneity: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach, вЂќ Diary of the American Statistical Relationship, 96 (453), 20вЂ“31.
Schumacker, Randall Elizabeth. and George A. Marcoulides (1998), Conversation and non-linear Effects in Structural Formula Modeling. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Sheppard, Blair H., Jon Hartwick, and Paul R. Warshaw (1988), " The Theory of Reasoned Actions: A Meta-Analysis of Previous Research with Recommendations for Changes and Long term Research, вЂќ Journal of Consumer Study, 15 (3), 325вЂ“43. Sherman, Steven T. (1980), " On the Self-Erasing Nature of Errors of Prediction, вЂќ Journal of Personality and Social Mindset, 39 (August), 211вЂ“21. Simmons, Carolyn L., Barbara A. Bickart, and John G. Lynch Jr. (1993), " Capturing and Creating Public Opinion in Survey Analysis, вЂќ Record of Client Research, 20 (2), 316вЂ“29. Spangenberg, Joshua R. (1997), " Increasing Health Club Attendance Through Self-Prophecy, вЂќ Promoting Letters, almost 8 (1), 23вЂ“32. вЂ”вЂ”вЂ” and Anthony G. Greenwald (1999), " Social Influence by simply Requesting Self-Prophecy, вЂќ Record of Client Psychology, almost eight (1), 61вЂ“89. Sprott, David E., Richard R. Spangenberg, Bianca Grohmann, and Ronn J. Johnson (2003), " Mass-Communicated Prediction Requests: Practical Application and a Cognitive Dissonance Explanation for Self-Prophecy, вЂќ Journal of Marketing, 67 (July), 47вЂ“62. Sudman, Seymour and Brian Wansink (2002), Consumer Panels, second ed. Chicago: American Promoting Association. Wansink, Brian and Michael M. Ray (2000), " Calculating an Advertisement's Impact on A person's Consumption of your Brand, вЂќ Journal of Advertising Study, 40 (6), 106вЂ“113.
16 / Record of Marketing, Apr 2005